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Two-Spirit term in North American Tribal Languages

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Two-Spirit term in North American Tribal Languages

Aleut: Male-bodied: Ayagigux’ (“man transformed into a woman”) Female-bodied: Tayagigux’ (“woman transformed into a man”)
Arapaho Male-bodied: Haxu’xan (singular), Hoxuxuno (plural) (“rotten bone”)

Arikara Male-bodied: Kuxa’t

Assiniboine Male-bodied: Winktan

Bella Coola Male-bodied: Sx’ints (“hermaphrodite”)

Blackfoot, Southern Peigan Male-bodied: Aakíí’skassi (“acts like a woman”) Female-bodied: Saahkómaapi’aakííkoan (“boy-girl”) [ *strictly a nickname given to Running Eagle* ]

Cheyenne Male-bodied: He’eman (singular), He’emane’o (plural) (hee = “woman”)Female-bodied: Hetaneman (singular), Hatane’mane’o (plural) (hetan = “man”)

Chickasaw, Choctaw Male-bodied: Hoobuk

Chumash Male-bodied: Agi

Cocopa Male-bodied: Elha (“coward”) Female-bodied: Warrhameh

Coeur d’Alene Female-bodied: St’amia (“hermaphrodite”)

Cree Male-bodied: Aayahkwew (“neither man or woman”)

Crow Male-bodied: Bote/Bate/Bade (“not man, not woman”)

Dakota (Santee Sioux) Male-bodied: Winkt

Flathead (Interior Salish) Male-bodied: Ma’kali

Gros Ventre Male-bodied: Athuth

Hidatsa Male-bodied: Miati (“to be impelled against one’s will to act the woman,” “woman compelled”)

Hopi Male-bodied: Ho’va

Illinois Male-bodied: Ikoueta Female-bodied: Ickoue ne kioussa (“hunting women”)

Ingalik Male-bodied: Nok’olhanxodeleane (“woman pretenders”) Female-bodied: Chelxodeleane (“man pretenders”)

Inuit Male-bodied: Sipiniq (“infant whose sex changes at birth”)

Juaneno Male-bodied: Kwit

Karankawa Male-bodied: Monaguia

Keresan, Acoma Male-bodied: Kokwi’ma

Laguna Male-bodied: Kok’we’ma

Klamath Male-/Female-bodied: Tw!inna’ek

Kutenai Male-bodied: Kupatke’tek (“to imitate a woman”) Female-bodied: Titqattek (“pretending to be a man”)

Kumeyaay, Tipai, Kamia Female-bodied: Warharmi

Lakota (Teton Sioux) Male-bodied: Winkte (“[‘wants’ or ‘wishes’] to be [like] [a] woman.” A contraction of winyanktehca) Female-bodied: Bloka egla wa ke (“thinks she can act like a man”) [ editor’s note: cited by Beatrice Medicine, its age unknown ]

Luiseno, San Juan Capistrano Male-bodied: Cuit Mountain- Male-bodied: Uluqui

Mandan Male-bodied: Mihdacka (mih-ha = “woman”)

Maricopa Male-bodied: Ilyaxai’ (“girlish”) Female-bodied: Kwiraxame

Mescalero Apache Male-bodied: Nde’isdzan (“man-woman”)

Miami Male-bodied: Waupeengwoatar (“the white face,” possibly the name of a particular person who was two-spirit)

Micmac Male-bodied: Geenumu gesallagee (“he loves men,” perhaps correctly spelt ji’nmue’sm gesalatl)

Miwok Male-bodied: Osabu (osa = “woman”)

Mohave Maled-bodied: Alyha (“coward”) Female-bodied: Hwame

Western Mono Male-bodied: Tai’up

Navajo Male-/female-/intersexed-bodied: Nadleeh or nadle (gender class/category), nadleehi (singular), nadleehe (plural) (“one in a constant state of change,” “one who changes,” “being transformed”)

Nisenan (Southern Maidu) Male-bodied: Osa’pu

Ojibwa (Chippewa) Male-bodied: Agokwa (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Okitcitakwe (“warrior woman”)

Omaha, Osage, Ponca Male-bodied: Mixu’ga (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Otoe, Kansa (Kaw)
Male-bodied: Mixo’ge (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Papago (Tohono O’odham), Pima (Akimel O’odham) Male-bodied: Wik’ovat (“like a girl”)

Paiute Northern Male-bodied: Tudayapi (“dress like other sex”) Southern Male-bodied: Tuwasawuts

Patwin Male-bodied: Panaro bobum pi (“he has two [sexes]“)

Pawnee Male-bodied: Ku’saat

Pomo Northern Male-bodied: Das (Da = “woman”) Southern Male-bodied: T!un

Potawatomi Male-bodied: M’netokwe (“supernatural, extraordinary,” Manito plus female suffix)

Quinault Male-bodied: Keknatsa’nxwixw (“part woman”) Female-bodied: Tawkxwa’nsixw (“man-acting”)

Salinan Male-bodied: Coya

Sanpoil Male-bodied: St’a’mia (“hermaphrodite”)

Sauk (Sac), Fox Male-bodied: I-coo-coo-a (“man-woman”)

Shoshone Bannock Male-bodied: Tuva’sa (“sterile”)

Lemhi Male/Female-bodied: Tubasa Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Gosiute Male-bodied: Tuvasa

Promontory Point Male-bodied: Tubasa waip (“sterile woman”)Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Nevada Male-bodied: Tainna wa’ippe (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Nuwuducka (“female hunter”)

Takelma Male-bodied: Xa’wisa

Tewa Male-/Female-bodied: Kwido

Tiwa Isleta Male-bodied: Lhunide

Tlingit Male-bodied: Gatxan (“coward”)

Tsimshian Noots

Southern Ute Male-bodied: Tuwasawits

Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) Male-bodied: Shiange (“unmanly man”)

Wishram Male-bodied: Ik!e’laskait

Yuma (Quechan) Male-bodied: Elxa’ (“coward”) Female-bodied: Kwe’rhame

Yup’ik Chugach/Pacific (Alutiiq, Southern Alaskan) Male-bodied: Aranu’tiq (“man-woman”)

St. Lawrence Island (Siberian Yup’ik, Western Alaskan) Male-bodied: AnasikFemale-bodied: Uktasik

Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan) Male-bodied: Aranaruaq (“woman-like”)Female-bodied: Angutnguaq (“man-like”)

Zapotec Male-bodied: Muxe

Zuni Male-bodied: Lha’mana (“behave like a woman”) Female-bodied: Katotse (“boy-girl”)

Two- Spirit. Internet Archive Wayback Machine

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