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Two-Spirit term in North American Tribal Languages

Two-Spirit term in North American Tribal Languages

Aleut: Male-bodied: Ayagigux’ (“man transformed into a woman”) Female-bodied: Tayagigux’ (“woman transformed into a man”)
Arapaho Male-bodied: Haxu’xan (singular), Hoxuxuno (plural) (“rotten bone”)

Arikara Male-bodied: Kuxa’t

Assiniboine Male-bodied: Winktan

Bella Coola Male-bodied: Sx’ints (“hermaphrodite”)

Blackfoot, Southern Peigan Male-bodied: Aakíí’skassi (“acts like a woman”) Female-bodied: Saahkómaapi’aakííkoan (“boy-girl”) [ *strictly a nickname given to Running Eagle* ]

Cheyenne Male-bodied: He’eman (singular), He’emane’o (plural) (hee = “woman”)Female-bodied: Hetaneman (singular), Hatane’mane’o (plural) (hetan = “man”)

Chickasaw, Choctaw Male-bodied: Hoobuk

Chumash Male-bodied: Agi

Cocopa Male-bodied: Elha (“coward”) Female-bodied: Warrhameh

Coeur d’Alene Female-bodied: St’amia (“hermaphrodite”)

Cree Male-bodied: Aayahkwew (“neither man or woman”)

Crow Male-bodied: Bote/Bate/Bade (“not man, not woman”)

Dakota (Santee Sioux) Male-bodied: Winkt

Flathead (Interior Salish) Male-bodied: Ma’kali

Gros Ventre Male-bodied: Athuth

Hidatsa Male-bodied: Miati (“to be impelled against one’s will to act the woman,” “woman compelled”)

Hopi Male-bodied: Ho’va

Illinois Male-bodied: Ikoueta Female-bodied: Ickoue ne kioussa (“hunting women”)

Ingalik Male-bodied: Nok’olhanxodeleane (“woman pretenders”) Female-bodied: Chelxodeleane (“man pretenders”)

Inuit Male-bodied: Sipiniq (“infant whose sex changes at birth”)

Juaneno Male-bodied: Kwit

Karankawa Male-bodied: Monaguia

Keresan, Acoma Male-bodied: Kokwi’ma

Laguna Male-bodied: Kok’we’ma

Klamath Male-/Female-bodied: Tw!inna’ek

Kutenai Male-bodied: Kupatke’tek (“to imitate a woman”) Female-bodied: Titqattek (“pretending to be a man”)

Kumeyaay, Tipai, Kamia Female-bodied: Warharmi

Lakota (Teton Sioux) Male-bodied: Winkte (“[‘wants’ or ‘wishes’] to be [like] [a] woman.” A contraction of winyanktehca) Female-bodied: Bloka egla wa ke (“thinks she can act like a man”) [ editor’s note: cited by Beatrice Medicine, its age unknown ]

Luiseno, San Juan Capistrano Male-bodied: Cuit Mountain- Male-bodied: Uluqui

Mandan Male-bodied: Mihdacka (mih-ha = “woman”)

Maricopa Male-bodied: Ilyaxai’ (“girlish”) Female-bodied: Kwiraxame

Mescalero Apache Male-bodied: Nde’isdzan (“man-woman”)

Miami Male-bodied: Waupeengwoatar (“the white face,” possibly the name of a particular person who was two-spirit)

Micmac Male-bodied: Geenumu gesallagee (“he loves men,” perhaps correctly spelt ji’nmue’sm gesalatl)

Miwok Male-bodied: Osabu (osa = “woman”)

Mohave Maled-bodied: Alyha (“coward”) Female-bodied: Hwame

Western Mono Male-bodied: Tai’up

Navajo Male-/female-/intersexed-bodied: Nadleeh or nadle (gender class/category), nadleehi (singular), nadleehe (plural) (“one in a constant state of change,” “one who changes,” “being transformed”)

Nisenan (Southern Maidu) Male-bodied: Osa’pu

Ojibwa (Chippewa) Male-bodied: Agokwa (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Okitcitakwe (“warrior woman”)

Omaha, Osage, Ponca Male-bodied: Mixu’ga (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Otoe, Kansa (Kaw)
Male-bodied: Mixo’ge (“instructed by the moon,” “moon instructed”)

Papago (Tohono O’odham), Pima (Akimel O’odham) Male-bodied: Wik’ovat (“like a girl”)

Paiute Northern Male-bodied: Tudayapi (“dress like other sex”) Southern Male-bodied: Tuwasawuts

Patwin Male-bodied: Panaro bobum pi (“he has two [sexes]“)

Pawnee Male-bodied: Ku’saat

Pomo Northern Male-bodied: Das (Da = “woman”) Southern Male-bodied: T!un

Potawatomi Male-bodied: M’netokwe (“supernatural, extraordinary,” Manito plus female suffix)

Quinault Male-bodied: Keknatsa’nxwixw (“part woman”) Female-bodied: Tawkxwa’nsixw (“man-acting”)

Salinan Male-bodied: Coya

Sanpoil Male-bodied: St’a’mia (“hermaphrodite”)

Sauk (Sac), Fox Male-bodied: I-coo-coo-a (“man-woman”)

Shoshone Bannock Male-bodied: Tuva’sa (“sterile”)

Lemhi Male/Female-bodied: Tubasa Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Gosiute Male-bodied: Tuvasa

Promontory Point Male-bodied: Tubasa waip (“sterile woman”)Female-bodied: Waipu sungwe (“woman-half”)

Nevada Male-bodied: Tainna wa’ippe (“man-woman”) Female-bodied: Nuwuducka (“female hunter”)

Takelma Male-bodied: Xa’wisa

Tewa Male-/Female-bodied: Kwido

Tiwa Isleta Male-bodied: Lhunide

Tlingit Male-bodied: Gatxan (“coward”)

Tsimshian Noots

Southern Ute Male-bodied: Tuwasawits

Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) Male-bodied: Shiange (“unmanly man”)

Wishram Male-bodied: Ik!e’laskait

Yuma (Quechan) Male-bodied: Elxa’ (“coward”) Female-bodied: Kwe’rhame

Yup’ik Chugach/Pacific (Alutiiq, Southern Alaskan) Male-bodied: Aranu’tiq (“man-woman”)

St. Lawrence Island (Siberian Yup’ik, Western Alaskan) Male-bodied: AnasikFemale-bodied: Uktasik

Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan) Male-bodied: Aranaruaq (“woman-like”)Female-bodied: Angutnguaq (“man-like”)

Zapotec Male-bodied: Muxe

Zuni Male-bodied: Lha’mana (“behave like a woman”) Female-bodied: Katotse (“boy-girl”)

Two- Spirit. Internet Archive Wayback Machine


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Two-Spirit defined and Native Americans

TWO-SPIRITED – LGBT Native Americans

“Two Spirit” is an aboriginal phrase (A direct translation of the Ojibwe term Niizh manidoowag) that refers to both masculine and feminine spirits simultaneously living in the same body. It is a term used by the native, indigenous, or aboriginal lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

Within the various native or aboriginal populations (American Indian, Canadian Indian, Alaskan Native, Inuit, First Nations, and others), LGBT individuals often have difficulty overcoming the cultural taboos against homosexual behavior.

As a result of tribal community pressures, young people who have a different sexual orientation often grow up in a closeted existence or actual isolation. This imposed isolation is self-destructive and limits individuals from living to their fullest potential. In a school environment, many of these young people are subjected to bullying and harassment from their classmates. In this atmosphere, support is generally unavailable and creates an unsafe environment within the school. Nonetheless, there are exceptional gay students who somehow endure and who are accepted as equals by their peers. However, the majority of gay students exhibit behaviors such as skipping school, which affects their academic performance, or simply will become a run away from both home and school.

For the Native LGBT who seeks life in a city for anonymity, the experience can be far more negative than staying within their home community. Like most natives reared in a tribal community, Native LGBT retain pride in their identity, where they are from and who are their relatives. Living in a city can unfortunately give a sense of alienation that is both physical and emotional. Native LGBT individuals often grieve their separation from family and community when they are unaccepted in a city because of their lifestyle as well as being a Native. This experience results in a double discrimination for Native LGBT instead of the desired anonymity.

TWO-SPIRITED – LGBT Native Americans